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Syncretizing the Force

Part 4 – Syncretizing the Force

Read Part 1: Star Wars Awakens
Read Part 2: Merchandi$ing the Force

Read Part 3: Manipulating the Force 

For though we walk in the flesh,
we do not war according to the
for the weapons of our warfare are not of the flesh,
but divinely
powerful for the destruction of fortresses.”

(2 Cor. 10:3-4)
Punch Thy Neighbor – Source

The martial arts is a philosophy that is pretty much the principles in the Bible. Even though we can’t talk about Jesus, we can talk about what Jesus talks about in the Bible – love, loving your neighbor, being good people. Even though we can’t quote Scripture, we can say what Jesus says in the Bible or what the Apostle Paul says or what St. Peter says. We can say that in an indirect way, which we do.
~ Chuck Norris, Christian and Martial Arts Master[82] [bold added] 


By Gaylene Goodroad 

Years after I renounced my martial arts black belts, I was teaching a women’s Bible study two times a week in the basement of a large church. Thursday evenings became problematic for me because of excessive noise upstairs above my classroom. At times, the roof seemed to rumble, which created an unpleasant distraction to our Bible study. One night, I traveled up to the first floor to see what the ruckus was about. To my utter dismay, the upstairs area of the church—as well as the sanctuary—was teeming with martial artists of all ages who were yelling, kicking, screaming, and wielding practice karate weapons. That night, I found out that the church I was a member of hosted a karate class every week—in the large room above my class. Later I would discover a favorable article about this karate class on the church website—along with a prominent photo of the black belt instructor, arm-and-arm, with the senior pastor! This unsettling situation, I learned, has become all too common within the Christian church.

Exhibit: the syncretism of Christianity and the Martial Arts[83]

Most martial arts practitioners (let alone Christians) do not realize the spiritual dangers lurking within the repetitious training. I didn’t. Neither did Gichin Funakoshi, the father of modern-day karate.[84] In 1962, while Chuck Norris was still a young black belt, he allowed a Buddhist monk to guide him into an altered state of consciousness. After this experience, he wrote:

The monk tried to convince me to convert [to Buddhism], but my Christian faith was too strong. But that was when I first became aware that there was more to the martial arts than just the physical, and it was a turning point in my life…over the years my understanding of that other side of the martial arts has grown considerably. In the end, the idea of a third eye helps in an understanding of Zen, since Zen is another way of seeing—you could even say a way of seeing with both your eyes closed.[85][bold added] 

This seeing without the eyes hearkens back to Luke’s training in the Force by Ben Kenobi described in Part 3. The fact that this occult experience “was a [positive] turning point” in Norris’ life and that his “understanding of the other side of the martial arts has grown considerably,” is quite disturbing. The evidence suggests that the Buddhist monk in the saffron robe converted Norris to Buddhism after all.


The “idea of a third eye” as well as “seeing with both eyes closed” is a Buddhist tenet, not a biblical one. It is New Age mysticism. The Bible teaches us to meditate (think about) things with intentional, rational thoughts—with our eyes wide open so-to-speak—not by emptying our mind, entering into an altered state of consciousness, and sensing an enlightened understanding (Ps. 63:6; 119:15, 99; Josh. 1:8; Rom. 12:2). The Word of God becomes meaningless and insufficient in this occult worldview.

The troubling fact is that many unwitting ‘Christian’ karatekas will be drawn into Eastern religion and occult mysticism, far away from true Christianity, just by joining a karate dojo, a place martial arts go to train. Norris defines the Japanese word in The Secret Power Within:

The name dojo was borrowed from the Buddhist nomenclature for the halls set aside for meditation and other spiritual exercises in virtually every monastery and convent, and the original Sanskrit word, bodhimandala, means “the place of enlightenment.”[86][bold added] 

Buddhist enlightenment takes place when, through Eastern meditation, an adept becomes aware that he/she is God. This fact alone out to cause Christians, who are considering training in the martial arts, to pause before they ever enter through the doors of one.

In the book The Healing Gods author Gunther Brown documents this troubling trend as conservative Christians dabble in the dark spiritual dimensions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)—which according to Gunther Brown—includes the martial arts:

The study in this book indicates that participating in CAM may result in significant spiritual transformations even for those individuals who do not intend to become involved in CAM’s spiritual dimensions. Michael Rapose, a martial-arts scholar and practitioner, used aikido as an example. Morihei Ueshiba, (1883-1969) developed aikido in Japan to embody a new religious movement, Omoto-kyo, which draws on Taoism, Buddhism, and Shinto. For Ueshiba, the cosmos has a divine center, and meditation, or sinking into the center of one’s being, is a way of returning to the cosmic center. The cosmos gave rise to ki, the energy that animates everything, and breath, which is both physical and spiritual, embodies ki. Aikido students “breathe in and let yourself soar to the ends of the universe; breathe out and bring the cosmos back inside… British martial-arts scholar Stewart McFarlane argues that “many people, particularly in the West, have been drawn to Zen and other forms of Buddhist practice through an initial interest in and pursuit of Eastern martial arts.”[87][bold added] 

As I described in Part 1, my personal testimony is that I was “drawn to Zen and other forms of Buddhist practice through an initial interest in and pursuit of Eastern martial arts.” I earned my second black belt in the soft martial arts style of Aikido. Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido, claimed to be an Enlightened individual [i.e., he became aware that he was divine through meditation] who possessed (or was possessed) by superhuman abilities achieved through harnessing, manipulating, and manifesting the kundalini—serpent power—of the Ki Force. He believed that everyone was innately a god or goddess. Not surprisingly, Ueshiba’s martial arts sensei was a grand shaman.[88] The astute reader will recognize the correspondence to Yoga, as documented in Part 1.

Ankerberg and Weldon in their Encyclopedia of New Age Beliefs comment on the source of Ueshiba’s power:

At least some of the martial arts were influenced by or developed from occult experiences. For example, although its origins may be traced to twelfth-century Japan, the modern developer of aikido was Morihei Ueshiba (1883-1969). An article in Yoga Journal by Buddhist scholar and aikido instructor John Stevens states, “Morihei Ueshiba, founder of Aikido, looked like a Taoist immortal, acted like a Hindu swami and spoke like a Shinto shaman.”[89][bold added] 

Exhibit: Morihei Ueshiba, Founder of Aikido [90]

It is a great mystery that so many professing Christians revere a man who “looked like a Taoist immortal, acted like a Hindu swami and spoke like a Shinto shaman.” Chuck Norris, for example, uses his own notoriety to re-cast Ueshiba’s dark abilities in a positive light:

In my tape library is an old film of Ueshiba, taken when he was in his late seventies. In it, he is attacked by several much larger and burlier men, and he throws them around a though they are children with simple movements of his hand using his ki. Sound impossible? It’s not. It’s practiced use of ki.[91][bold added] 

In this statement above by Norris one can almost hear Obi Wan instructing Luke, “The Force is what gives a Jedi his power. Learn to use it….” Rather than warn readers of Ueshiba’s occult powers, Norris instead admits to getting “inspiration” from this “venerable old martial artist and Zen practitioner”:


Occasionally I take down from my tape library, films of some of the most remarkable old men I have ever seen. Two of the venerable old martial arts masters and Zen practitioners who give me inspiration are Gichin Funakoshi, the father of modern karate, and Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido. Ueshiba was one of the first men to unite spiritual beliefs with technical skill; he realized that the truly critical struggle in man was not physical combat, but rather the internal confrontation with the forces that lead him out of harmony with the spirit of the universe.[92][bold added] 

Unfortunately, the “spiritual beliefs” that Ueshiba united with his martial art came from Taoism, Hinduism, Shintoism, etc., not biblical Christianity. Using his mystical art to bring oneself back into harmony (balance) with the “spirit of the universe” is no different than a Star Wars Jedi endeavoring to bring balance to the Force—back from the Dark Side. It’s pantheistic. It’s monistic, i.e., “All is One”. This belief is directly opposed to the God of the Bible (the Creator), who is separate from His creation. We are not all part of the same cosmic One (God), or as the old occult maxim says, “as above, so below.”

Despite the greater awareness over the last few years of these unbiblical practices at the core of all martial arts, a simple Google search will pull up millions of so-called “Christian” martial arts schools. Notice the Yin and Yang (the Tao) symbol (as well as black versus white uniforms) depicted in the backgrounds of these “Christian” martial arts school patches:

Exhibit: ‘Christian’ martial arts uniform patches[93]

Note also the troubling mixture of truth versus error, i.e., the cross of Christ incorporated into the Tao, the dove (which represents the Holy Spirit) within the Tao (suggesting perhaps that the Holy Spirit and the Ki-Force are one), or the ‘karate fist salute’ defacing the Cross (seen below in a “Christian” martial arts instructor’s guide).

Exhibit: “Christian” Martial Arts materials[94]

Below is a sampling of “Christian” martial arts schools in operation today:

  • Christian Martial Arts Association 
  • Christian Karate Association 
  • Martial Arts Ministries 
  • International Fellowship of Christian Martial Artists 
  • Christian Martial Arts Council 
  • Karate for Christ International 
  • American Christian Karate Association 
  • World Christian Karate Federation 
  • Christian Soldiers Karate 
  • Gospel Martial Arts Union 
  • Grace Martial Arts 
  • White Tiger Martial Arts 
  • Christ Mixed Martial Arts 
Exhibit: Gospel Martial Arts Union (GMAU) logo 

The Gospel Martial Arts Union (GMAU)
The Gospel Martial Arts Union (GMAU) is one of thousands of so-called “Christian” martial arts “ministries” in operation. Note how it misuses Psalm 144:1 from the Old Testament in its school logo (above) in a sad effort to sanctify the practice of the “Christian” martial arts—not simply Christians who join a secular martial arts program—but a martial arts system that is distinctly “Christian”. The stated purpose of the GMAU is “to encourage and aid Christian martial arts,” develop “a distinctly Christian philosophy of martial arts that is Bible-centric,” and “set a national and international standard for true Christian martial arts philosophy”:

The GMAU was founded as an organization to encourage and aid Christian martial arts. To that extent, the GMAU has developed a distinctly Christian philosophy of martial arts that is Bible-centric in its origin and purpose. We endeavor to publish, propagate, and set a national and international standard for true Christian martial arts philosophy.[95][bold added] 

This is complete nonsense! “Christian” martial arts is an oxymoron. The two views are diametrically opposed and cannot be syncretized. Attempting to do so tosses the Bible upside down and turns the Gospel of Jesus Christ into a lie.

Exhibit: Martial Arts studio: “Christian Principles Taught Here”[96]

Take note of a sample listing of courses offered by the University of Biblical Martial Arts & Sciences (UBMAS)—a college offering B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in the “Christian” Martial Arts—and a school promoted by the GMAU. As you read down this list (with exhibits added to illustrate the points) ask yourself what this has to do with the simplicity of the Gospel of Salvation in Jesus Christ:

  • Principles of Public Relations 
  • Fundamental Physics Principles 1 
  • Bushido—The Philosophy of the Warrior 

  • Zen, Taoist, and Buddhist Thought
  • The American Legal System 
  • Kinesiology 
    An example of the fist arts,
    atch: https://vimeo.com/90732974

  • New Testament Survey 
  • The Christian Family 
  • Bibliology 
  • Martial Arts in the Old Testament 

  • Conducting Martial Arts Events 

  • The Role of the Christian Shihan 

  • Advanced Weapons Arts 

  • The Martial Artist 

  • Dynamics of Kata 

  • Principles of Ki (Chi) [i.e., the Star Wars Force
  • Scientific Basis of the Martial Arts 
  • Martial Arts and Missionary Work 
  • Martial Arts Evangelism 
  • The Christian Sensei 
  • The Martial Arts and Christianity 
  • Etiquette in the Martial Arts 
    Another example: https://vimeo.com/90732974

  • Famous Martial Artists 
  • Spiritual Disciplines 
  • The Bible and Science 
  • Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 
  • Statistical Analysis 
  • Introduction to Philosophy 
  • Classical Martial Arts Philosophy 
  • Defensive Mind-Leading 
  • Physiology of Exercise 
  • Old Testament History 
  • Care and Prevention of Sports Injuries 
  • Organization and Administration of a Christian Martial Arts Ministry 
  • The Martial Arts and the New Testament 
  • Advanced Hard Fist Arts 
    Another example: https://vimeo.com/90732974

  • Advanced Soft Fist Arts 

  • Martial Arts Weapons 
  • Principles of Technique 
  • Principles of Kumite 
  • Christian Dojo Management 
  • Martial Arts for Children 
  • The Martial Arts and Youth Work 
  • Psychology and the Martial Arts 
  • Martial Arts Exercise Programs 
  • History of the Martial Arts 
  • Survey of the Martial Arts 1 
  • Principles of Biblical Leadership 
  • Biblical Counseling [97][bold added]

This “Christian” martial arts program is totally devoid of the Lord Jesus Christ, but abounding with study of the Ki Force (i.e., ‘Principles of Ki [Chi]’). It is an unbiblical mixture of truth and error.

Exhibit: Pastor Johnny Russell – GMAU Executive Director

GMAU Executive Director, Dr. Johnny Russell, holds black belts in seven traditional martial arts styles and is also a Christian pastor.[98] Where in all of the Scriptures does it teach the Lord’s bondservant to perform a ‘choke hold’ on anybody (i.e., ‘Advanced Soft Fist Arts’), or to conduct weapons training (i.e., ‘Advanced Weapons Art’) for that matter? (See illustration.)

And what exactly is “Defensive Mind-Leading” in the list above? It sounds ominously suspicious to my trained eyes. Some of the other courses listed in this so-called ‘Christian’ martial arts university are quite blatantly from Eastern religion: “Zen, Buddhist, and Taoist Thought 1,” “Principles of Ki (Chi), and “Bushido – The Philosophy of the Warrior.” Note the “Do” (Tao/Dao) ending of that last item. Bushido literally means “way of the warrior”. It is from Taoism.

Grievously, the Lord Jesus Christ is totally absent from this lengthy list of purported Bible classes, as well as the entire ‘Christian’ martial arts movement.

Exhibit: 2014 GMAU Karate Tournament poster[99]

Christjitsu Discipleship Course
Another glaring example of such unbiblical syncretism can be found in the Christjitsu Discipleship Course sponsored by Martial Arts Ministries. Their ministry motto is, “Defend Yourself. Defend Your Faith,” as though the two ideas belong together. There are obvious Dominionist ramifications to this. 

Martial Arts Ministries motto[100]

Here how the Martial Arts Ministries website describes their martial arts discipleship course. They go so far as to call themselves “Anointed Fighters”:

Welcome to ChristJitsu™ 

Almost every style of martial arts in existence today has a Grandmaster. The Grandmaster is the person who is responsible for either the formation of the art or the person who is currently responsible for making sure the art is taught correctly. ChristJitsu looks to Jesus Christ as it’s Grandmaster. He is the one who made a way for mankind to be reconciled to God. It is by following his teachings and the example he set in life, that Anointed Fighters gain the knowledge needed to fight “the good fight of faith” (1 Timothy 6:12). 

The name ChristJitsu is formed by the joining of two separate terms. The first of these terms is Christ, meaning anointed, the Greek translation of the Hebrew word “Messiah.” This term occurs 1,514 times in the New Testament. It denotes that Jesus Christ was set apart for God’s work to redeem His people and earth as Prophet, Priest, and King. The second term Jitsu is often translated “art”, “technique” or “way of”. We desire that Anointed Fighters are equipped in the best possible techniques or ways to fight “the good fight of faith.” 

ChristJitsu is the spiritual martial art fighting system that teaches Anointed Fighters to “fight the good fight of faith” through the power of Jesus Christ within. ChristJitsu teaches that there is only one way to the Father and that is through His son, Jesus Christ.…[101][bold added] 

Not only is it blasphemous to suggest that the Lord Jesus is a martial arts Grandmaster (a la Yoda), but nowhere—not one place—in the Word of God are believers instructed to “fight the good fight of faith” by using physical kicking and punching (or Eastern mystical practices for that matter)! “For though we walk in the flesh, we do not war according to the flesh, for the weapons of our warfare are not of the flesh, but divinely powerful for the destruction of fortresses.” (2 Cor. 10:3-4)

Note the syncretism inherent in their name Christjitsu. Below is the definition of jujitsu (a form of jitsu) from the dictionary:

jujitsu – noun (Concise Encyclopedia) 

Martial art that employs holds, throws, and paralyzing blows to subdue or disable an opponent. It evolved among the samurai warrior class in Japan from about the 17th century. A ruthless form of fighting, its techniques included the use of hard or tough parts of the body (e.g., knuckles, fists, elbows, and knees) against an enemy’s vulnerable points. Jujitsu declined in the mid-19th century, but many of its concepts and methods were incorporated into judo, karate, and aikido.[102][bold added; hyperlinks removed] 

The Christjitsu webpage admits to marrying “Christ” to various “ruthless forms of fighting”: “The physical techniques taught within ChristJitsu are derived from Kenpo, Taekwondo, American Boxing, Muay Thai, Jiu Jitsu, Kali and various other styles.” This “Christ” in Christjitsu is NOT the Christ of the Bible. Faith is not physical, but an inner conviction that God’s Word is true.
Right actions flow from true faith (Heb. 11:1; 1 Tim. 4:8).
Incorporating the combat arts to “faith” renders it null and void and
distorts the Bible, as well as the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

Exhibit: “Christian” martial arts “Bible[103]

The ‘Christian’ Martial Arts ‘Bible’ 
There is also a Bible published specifically for “Christian” martial artists. It’s called Wisdom for the Warrior. In the Preface to this Bible, the Lord Jesus Christ is again likened to a martial arts master, but note how the Lord is spoken of in the past tense:

On the pages of this book you will read about the greatest Warrior Who ever lived. The Master. Jesus. He was Humble. He was Confident. He had Courage. He was committed to a Purpose. He offered Himself as a Sacrifice. He was pure. He had Faith in His heavenly Father. He was a man of Love. He fought a battle in our place, facing an enemy we had no chance to defeat—death; and He gained the victory using the weapon of love. It is our heartfelt prayer that you will submit yourself to the Master. He alone can teach you the techniques necessary to defeat death… ’the last enemy’. [bold added] 

I commented on this troubled martial arts Bible in my book My Life in ‘the Way’:

The publishers of Wisdom for the Warrior: The Bible for Martial Artists were indeed audacious to sandwich an NIV bible between such seductive error. The Lord Jesus Christ was never a martial arts sensei or warrior—the intended meaning of using the title Master in this context—He is the Lord Jesus Christ. He is NOT in the past tense, but the present…because He lives forevermore (See: Heb. 7:25). 

Furthermore, the Lord does not have to teach us additional techniques to defeat death (or sin)! This assertion usurps Christ’s finished work on the Cross (See: Jn. 19:30).[105][bold added] 

Exhibit: Black Belt magazine, August Issue 1969 (Vol. VII, NO. 8) [106]

Bob Jones University & CRU
So-called “Christian” martial arts are not a new phenomenon. Bob Jones University has been using the martial arts as an evangelistic tool for many decades. Note these excerpts from an early article that was published in Black Belt Magazine in August of 1969:

The Judo-Gentlemen of Bob Jones University are selling the gospel thanks to a demonstration of judo techniques which effectively capture an audience’s interest and attention. 

Team work of Budo and the Bible!… 

“…Young people seem more interested in sports than in formal religion”’ said Don Blackburn, leader of the group…. Judo is a particularly effective gospel ‘vehicle’, [he explained]. Through it [Judo], we are able to win the confidence of youths who are otherwise uncooperative where Christian teaching is concerned.[107][bold added] 


Gunther Brown also cites several “Christian” martial artists “ministries” in her 2013 book The Healing Gods:

The Champions for Christ Karate team at Bob Jones University—an institution in South Carolina that “exists to grow Christlike character” in its students—bring “the Gospel to needy people through the Southeast” as karatekas learn to “sharpen their soul winning skills, be an encouragement to others, and use their [karate] skills to glorify God.”(THG, pg. 87)[bold added] 

‘Away with wimpy Christians!’ admonishes Karate for Christ’s Daryl Covington [who] stresses that martial arts serve as an ‘evangelistic tool’ to ‘draw a crowd’ and ‘reach children and teenagers with the gospel of Jesus Christ.’”(THG, pg. 87)[bold added] 

“Campus Crusade for Christ [CRU] sends students on short-term mission trips in which they teach tae kwon do because it ‘opens hearts to the gospel…’”(THG, pg. 87)[bold added]

Exhibit: Fight Church documentary[108]

Mixed Martial Arts
Gunther-Brown also cites another pastor:

“‘Fight Pastor’ Brandon Beals of Canyon Creek Church in Washington uses MMA [Mixed Martial Arts] to ‘make Jesus look good’
and relate to ‘those who otherwise would not attend a traditional
church.’ The church-based Clarksville Mixed Martial Arts Academy in
Tennessee—‘Where Feet, Fist and Faith Collide’—has the ‘unique ministry’
of using ‘knowledge of MMA to lead others to Christ’ by reaching young men which many feel have been abandoned by the modern church.”
(THG, pg. 87)[bold added] 

It is incredible that anyone would assert that Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) can be used to “make Jesus look good.” Over and above the occult mysticism associated with the martial arts, is the raw brutality exhibited in such martial arts forms as MMA. The Lord Jesus Christ commands His followers to love their enemies and pray for them (Matt. 5: 39; 44; Lk. 6:27, 29, 35), not beat them into bloody submission. This unsavory aspect of “Christian” martial arts is soberly examined in a full-length video documentary called Fight Church. The trailer of this film can be seen here:

Exhibit: Fight Church trailer.
Click HERE to watch.[109]

The martial arts cannot be Christianized. The Force cannot be interchanged with the Holy Spirit. The martial arts are rooted in occult mysticism and Eastern religions entirely contrary to true Christianity. There is an impassable gulf fixed between them. The myriad of particular practices distinct to each style are in fact separate branches springing up from the same rotted tree destined for eternal fire (Matt. 7:18-19). Nothing can save the evil tree, nor the wicked sprouts attached to it, not even the Force.

 Christians need to flee from these unbiblical practices trusting that the Lord alone is our Strength, Protector, and Defender (Ps. 18:2, 61:3; Prov. 18:10, 2 Cor. 1:10; Eph. 6:10). We must deny the worldly self-focus and ungodly practices inherent in attempting to master and manipulate the occult Ki Force and instead be about the business of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ: praying, studying His Word, proclaiming the Gospel, and serving others—earnestly waiting for His soon return.

Exhibit: The rotted New Age tree sprouting Martial Arts branches

For further reference, I have written an updated and expanded e-booklet exposing the “Christian” martial arts titled, My Life in “the Way”. To access this booklet, click here.

Exhibit 27: Exposing the ‘Christian’ Martial Arts

“For You have abandoned Your people,

the house of Jacob,

Because they are filled with

influences from the east….
(Isaiah 2:6) 

Stay tuned for Part 5 of this article series. . . .

82. Laura Bagby interview with Chuck Norris, CBN.com, “Chuck Norris Gets a Kick Out of Life”; see: http://www1.cbn.com/700club/chuck-norris-gets-kick-out-life
83. Graphic taken from the Issues in the Church blog; see: http://issuesinthechurch.blogspot.com/p/should-christian-practice-martial.html
84. Ibid. Goodroad, My Life in ‘the Way’, pg. 4. 
85. Ibid. Norris, The Secret Power Within, pp. 5-6. 
86. Ibid. Norris, The Secret Power Within, pg. 33. 
87. Candy Gunther Brown, The Healing Gods: Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Christian America, Oxford University Press, New York, 2013, pg. 213. 
88. Ibid. Goodroad, My Life in ‘the Way’, pg. 12. 
89. Ibid. Ankerberg and Weldon, pg. 362-363. 
90. Graphic taken from the Seiza.ro website; see: http://www.seiza.ro/ecards/show/id/384
91. Ibid. Norris, The Secret Power Within, pg. 128. 
92. Ibid. Norris, The Secret Power Within, pg. 144. 
93. Graphics taken from the Cross-Training Christian Martial Arts website; see: http://www.ctcmaonline.com/ and Defenders of the Faith Martial Arts Ministry website: see: http://defendersofthefaith.us/
94. See: http://www.amazon.com/Christian-Martial-Arts-Instructors-Edition/dp/0972132821
95. See: http://www.gmau.org/about/
96. Photo courtesy of Martin and Joy Erdmann. 
97. See: http://www.gmau.org/university-of-biblical-martial-arts-sciences/. See also: http://www.gmau.com
98. GMAU and the Horizon Christian Fellowship of Morgan County have both upgraded their websites since the photo of Pastor Russell was posted. See new websites: http://www.gmau.org/leadership/. See also: http://horizonmc.org/
99. Graphic taken from older version of the GMAU website. The image has since been taken down. 
100. The Martial Arts Ministries website was changed since the graphic was cached. See the new website: http://www.scmfonline.org/christmma/christjitsu.htm
101. Ibid. Martial Arts Ministries website. 
102. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, “jujitsu”; see: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/jujitsu?show=0&t=1405390530
103. Wisdom for the Warrior, The Bible for Martial Artists, (Preface), NIV, King’s Highway Press; see: http://wisdomforthewarrior.com/. See also: Wisdom for the Warrior Bible; see: http://www.usadojo.com/products/book-reviews/wftw-bible.htm
104. Ibid. Wisdom for the Warrior Bible
105. Ibid. Goodroad, My Life in “the Way”, pg. 43. 
106. Black Belt Magazine, August Issue 1969 (Vol. Vii, No. 8); see: http://books.google.com/books?id=os4DAAAAMBAJ&lpg=PA7&ots=sLi3YWttxR&dq=bob%20jones%20university%20martial%20arts&pg=PA1#v=onepage&q=bob%20jones%20university%20martial%20arts&f=false
107. Ibid. Black Belt Magazine, August 1969, pp. 34-36. Note that the BJU issue is still current. See the following documentation on the Champions for Christ Karate Team: http://netministries.org/ministries/CM00968, and a 2010 article in The Collegian, “Martial arts team combines karate, gospel presentation,” by Jordan Wellin, http://www.collegianonline.com/files/2012/11/col_24_04.pdf. See also: http://www.collegianonline.com/2015/04/03/team-impact-uses-martial-arts-to-share-the-gospel/ 
108. See: http://onlyagame.wbur.org/2014/04/26/fight-church-documentary-mixed-martial-arts-christianity
109. Fight Church official trailer; see: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dPWnsQsUxNo. See the video at https://vimeo.com/90732974.